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Polymer Morphology. Qipeng Guo. Ceramic Nanocomposites. Rajat Banerjee. Hybrid Nanocomposites for Nanotechnology. Lhadi Merhari. George Hasegawa. Characterization Techniques for Polymer Nanocomposites. Submicron Porous Materials. Paolo Bettotti. Judit E. Ronnie Price. Size Exclusion Chromatography. Philippe Marcus. Inkjet Printing on Fabric. Wendy Cotterill. Dong Zhang. Wolfgang Schrepp. Polymeric Gas Separation Membranes. Reactivity Tuning in Oligosaccharide Assembly.
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In this context, a single glass transition temperature for all the blends characterizes complete miscibility. On the other hand, compatible systems show two T g values 19 , 20 which depend on composition while useful immiscible polymers show that the T g values for the pure components do not change with composition. Note that the miscibility or lack of it is often decisive for all properties for both inorganic glasses and polymers including, for polymers, effects of fillers, nano-confinement effects on segmental motions in polymer composites, and changes of T g with residual stress 21 , While T g as a function of composition has been used widely to develop useful polymer blends and copolymers, and other simple glassy liquids and thin films from aqueous emulsions and paints, surprisingly it has not been used to develop inorganic glasses with hitherto unattainable T g values and properties from existing compositions considering the facile and relative technological importance of this approach.
The unique desirable possibility of tailoring T g of inorganic phosphate glasses via blending should extend the versatile, low cost, and facile blending method to a wide variety of inorganic glass compositions that may lead to new applications such as optoelectronic and biocompatible biomedical devices, and storage materials for nuclear wastes 23 where already existing glasses cannot be used, essentially similar to current practice in the polymer industry.
The obtained results are analyzed and interpreted within the context of a number of extant theoretical equations that pervade the literature for predicting the glass transition temperatures of binary blends and copolymers see Supplementary information.
Like for organic polymers, the properties of the phosphate glass blends can be expected to be some combination of that of the blend components to a greater or lesser extent depending on the exact compositions. This is a matter for future investigation. In the current study described in this paper, representative existing low T g tin-phosphorous oxyfluoride and mixed alkali glass systems were used as good model systems because of their ease of preparation and handling, durability to water and chemicals, low working temperatures low- T g s compared to other commonly used inorganic glasses , and sensitivity of intermediate-range order to melt-processing conditions 10 , It is hoped that the interesting results of this study will provide a basis for further exploration of the facile idea of developing new phosphate glass compositions from already existing glass compositions.
Figure 2a—b shows the DSC traces of the second heating for the pure starting phosphate glass P-glass compositions and of the first heating for the blend sample LTw0. Two T g values are clearly noticeable, each of them being due to the solid-state powder of initial components in the blend. After this first heating and the subsequent cooling, the second heating of this blend Fig.
However, the first T g is much more discernible than the second one. Additionally, each T g moved to a different location compared to that shown in Fig. Therefore, it can be concluded that the total intimate mixing of the P-glass blend is nearly achieved. However, it must be recognized that Fig. Now considering the other blends in Table 1 , Fig. Additionally, Fig. Finally, all the T g values obtained taken at midpoints of the glass transition region are plotted as a function of the IHT2 weight fraction in Fig.
From this Figure, it can be concluded that the classical Fox Equation Supplementary equation 1 fails in describing the T g variation of the blends of the phosphate glass compositions studied. From the theoretical point of view, this finding leads to the conclusion that specific interactions between the P-glass blend components ILT2 and IHT2 , favorable to their miscibility, are present in the final P-glass blends.